There are many types of Cybermen, at least three known types in The Doctor's universe. They are all very similar in many ways. The first type are the Mondasians, there are also two sub groups of these, "The Faction" and normal Mondasian. All Mondasians are from the planet Mondas, which is the 10th planet from the sun, however Mondas eventually drifted away from the sun, and that's why the Mondasians had to upgrade them self into cyborgs so that they could survive the freezing cold. The sub group of the Mondasians called "The Fraction" left Mondas and went to Planet 14, where they fully embraced being turned to cyborgs. These are the type of cybermen that The Doctor usually encounters.
The second type of cybermen are from an alternate universe called "Pete's World". These are called "Cybus Cybermen" because they were made by Cybus Industries. Cybus Cybermen came to The Doctor's universe with a Dalek Dimension canon. Cybus Cybermen are currently thought to be totally exterminated in The Doctor's universe.
The last type of cybermen are called, Missy's Cybermen. She made these cybermen by taking dead human consciousness and then upgrading their dead bodies and then redownload the human consciousness to the newly upgraded body.
All of these cybermen have the same goal, to upgrade the whole universe.
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The Cybermen of the Doctor's universe are a race of artificially modified near-Humans which...