Galactic Federation is a name that has been used to refer to several interstellar affiliations or governments.
Doctor Who UniverseEdit
The Galactic Federation became the main political state of the Milky Way (a.k.a. Mutter's Spiral) following the decline of the Earth Empire at the turn of the 4th millennium. It was still operating as of the 40th century. Species whose homeworlds are members include: Alpha Centaurans, Humans, Ice Warriors, Arcturans, Vegans, Pakhars and later Peladonians. Federation members still enjoy full political authority within their own territories, as the Federation Council is forbidden from directly interfering with internal matters of its member planets.
Lilo & Stitch UniverseEdit
A Galactic Federation - also referred to as United Galactic Federation - operates on the Milky Way in the 20th century and appears to include hundreds of species, such as Kweltikwans and Plorgonarians. It is presided by the Grand Councilwoman.
Lost in Space UniverseEdit
A Galactic Federation is mentioned in the episode "West of Mars". The Space Enforcer works for it and claims the Sol System is beyond its limits. Most of the time, however, it is referred to as the "Space Federation".
The Galactic Federation is a large alliance of planets that spans across a good amount of space. Their major threat is the space pirates, who constantly disrupt peace in the Federation. For the purpose of fighting the space pirates the Federation often hires the space pirates' greatest fear, a bounty hunter by the name of Samus Aran. None of the Federation's diplomats could have guessed that this powerful bounty hunter was a female.
One of the four founding members shown in the Metroid 1 manual are also shown to be the Space Pirates. This could mean that their species were originally members of the Federation but for some reason defected against it.