Martians were a species of red humanoids according to the Spirit Science website. They were first featured in the Human History movie.
Not much is known about Martian biology. A Martian is a bipedal tetrapod, very possibly doted with an endoskeleton and internal organ system similar to those of a human.
Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems are highly resilient and adaptable, since they can still function at Earth's surface gravity. In other words, a Martian can function perfectly even if his or her weight is augmented by three. By contrast, the human heart stops pumping blood at 3 gees.
Functional lateralization also occurs on the Martian's brain. Regarding evolutionary psychology, Martians are much more aggressive and 'masculine' since more than a million years ago.
Martians are a sexually-reproducing dioecious species like humans, with hereditary information being stored in DNA.
Genetic compatibility exists between humans and Martians, as the two species are able to interbreed and bear fertile hybrid offspring. Purebreed Martians no longer exist today, possibly due to the two genetic bottlenecks that they underwent (the destruction of Mars and their later settlement on Earth) and forced them to mate with humans.
Back then, the Martians conducted the 'Lucifer experiment', which altered their behavior. After becoming emotionless and purely logical, the Martians enraged with each other as a contradictory result. Terrible wars broke out, with an astronomical number of casualties.
After blowing up their atmosphere, the survivors gathered together to create a 'Merkaba'; essentially a magical polyhedron capable of space-time flight. Instead of travelling backwards in time to prevent the seemingly pointless experiment, they decided to set course to Earth and invade Atlantis about 65 millennia into our past.
Despite being outnumbered by the Atlantean locals at their arrival, they still thought that trying to subdue them was the most logical thing to do. Predictably, they failed, but the Atlanteans were unable to send them back either.
Surprisingly, the Atlanteans neither killed nor subjected the hostile invaders to scientific research. Instead, they were given citizenry to the extent of being able to take part in political life. In essence, the Atlanteans gave the invading refugees the same rights as the benevolent Space Hebrews.
After the conflict, the Martians agreed to integrate with the Atlantean society, and began providing their 'left-brained', masculine technology. It is unknown exactly what artifacts Martian technology consisted on, but the movie shows ropes and swimming gogles as innovative inventions for Atlanteans.
As a result of sharing these technologies, the Atlanteans somehow became left-brained as well. Though becoming more logical as a result, the Atlanteans allowed Martians to eventually gain control of the whole continent, which was their original intention. Strangely, the telepathic Atlanteans had not been able to foresee this.
About 13,000 years ago, a comet was in collision course with Earth. The Atlanteans, who had cosmic awareness, were able to foresee it and saw it as in being in divine order. It is unknown why the highly-aware Atlanteans did not know that there is no divine order, since this what is said in the first part of the movie.
The Martians wanted to blow the comet up with laser technology, but the Atlanteans protested, and finally they all agreed in letting the collision take place. The Atlanteans' decision was clearly negligent, since the comet impacted nearby and some of the debris killed the Martians' main settlement.
With their numbers dangerously reduced, the Martians were outraged with the inept natives of the continent. So they tried to take over the world by building a complex of pyramids in order to create another synthetic Merkaba, like the once did and ended life on their homeworld. Possibly, the Martians lacked writing or historical recordings, since no one was able to remember the outcome of the original Merkaba.
Predictably, the activation of the synthetic Merkaba instantly destabilized it, causing a hole in the space-time continuum. An interdimensional tear opened, releasing many disoriented lower-dimensional spirits into the Atlanteans' realm. To survive, these spirits possessed the bodies of the Atlanteans and made them sick, akin to a plot similar to that of Scientology.
The magnitude of the cataclysm was much worse than any ongoing societal or ecological cataclysm. Humanity survived to the disaster, at the cost of forgetting everything about the lost world in the process. Luckily, some of the immortal Atlantean leaders managed to preserve their memories and secretly guide humanity through the ages.
Finally, the Martians mated with humans, producing a lineage of humans with their DNA. This lineage today is made up of 13 privileged families that control over 95% of the world's money (apparently in physical format). Thus, each family has an average of $5.9 trillion at their disposal.
Science and technology Edit
Already one million years before present, the Martian society was able to manufacture motorized war vehicles, use ballistic weapons and build pyramidal buildings.
Apart from having knowledge about the natural world, they also knew about the supernatural, being able to create a magical item called the Merkaba or conduct the Lucifer experiment.
The Martians must have had access to enormous amounts of energy as well, as they were able to blow their atmosphere away. Considering that Mars had an Earth-like atmospheric pressure and composition, ejecting all that mass at escape velocity would require at least 1026 J of energy, which is about a quarter of the Sun's energy output per second; either making the Martians a type II civilization or an extremely advanced type I civilization that released all its stored energy at once.
The Merkaba Edit
As the Martians lacked or abandoned Newtonian rockets, they instead had a supernatural, translucent polyhedron known as the Merkaba.
Since the only place the Martians could travel was Earth, the Merkaba might not be able to reach relativistic or superluminal velocities and allow leaving the Solar System in a feasible amount of time. Besides, it is said that the Atlanteans could not send the Martians back and that another Merkaba needed to be created in order to conquer the world, implying that the Merkaba is a single-use item.
Another possibility could be that the Merkaba was not magical, but an Alcubierre drive ship. General relativity implies that superluminal velocities equal backwards time travel (albeit with possible causality violations), something that the Merkaba was able to accomplish. Besides, many physicists have argued that the Alcubierre metric has a tendency to collapse through the emission of Hawking radiation, which could explain why the Merkaba could only be used once at a time.